两天一夜090927第一任上交所总经理尉文渊:那些激情燃烧的日子

jindon京东

    编者按:改革开放40年,风起云涌,激情荡漾。资本市场从无到有,从小到大,从萌芽到逐步成熟。40年的风雨中,有无数次的激动、喜悦、惊险和进步。本号推出《40年,我们亲历》专栏,选取中国证券报过往相关报道,以飨读者,这些报道至今读来余温犹在。让我们穿越时光,重温历史,放眼未来,走向辉煌!1990年12月19日上海证券交易所开业尉文渊:那些激情燃烧的日子上交所开业所在的浦江饭店 陆钧 摄“我们创办的真是个交易所吗?”1990年12月18日晚上,上海证券交易所开业前夕。交易所筹备组负责人、第一任上交所总经理尉文渊坐在刚刚装修完的交易大厅,心里一片茫然。作为中国改革开放向更纵深推进的标志,上海证券交易所的开业将是一件历史性的大事件,全世界都在关注。但是此刻,尉文渊却忐忑不安。更糟糕的是,对此已经不能再做什么了,只有等待。紧赶慢赶,交易系统总算准备就绪了。但既没有经过测试,更没有做过试运行,谁也不知道在实际交易过程中会出现什么情况。在确定选择了电脑交易的大原则和技术方案后,尉文渊天天询问系统建设的进展情况,但直到快开业了,大家心里仍然没有底。还有个大问题是清算,清算系统根本来不及搞,成立了个清算部,到时候能正常运营吗?只有天晓得。在上个世纪90年代初的中国,恐怕没有人能说清楚证券交易所是怎么回事。尉文渊和他的筹备班子从没见过一家真正的证券交易所。在信息极其匮乏的情况下,在不到半年的时间里,硬是摸索着把一个证券交易所建成了。可是,随着开业的临近,刚开始时的那种懵懂无知的自信渐渐被销蚀,一个困惑挥之不去:我搞的这个东西,真的是一个证券交易所吗?没有人能给他答案。木已成舟,即使有问题,事实上,也已没有修正和调整的可能,因为明天就要开业了。就在几天前,一次筹备小组的碰头会上,说着说着,尉文渊突然流泪了。除了极度的疲惫外,更要命的是那种茫茫然没有方向的感觉。事情搞砸了谁也负不起责任,可是你又无能为力!尉文渊说:当时他突然感到自己就像浪涛中的一叶小舟似的那样无助,不知会被甩向何方。身不由己,这种茫然的焦虑突然间把他淹没了。这种感觉很快就过去了,尉文渊是个不会向命运屈服的人。那一天不仅忙乱,麻烦事还多。在布置开业典礼的会场时,疲惫的尉文渊在搬桌子时压到了脚,当时就肿了起来。晚上,伤口发炎,他发起高烧来,浑身冷热交作。但明天就要开业,全世界的目光都将向这里聚焦,而所有的努力、辛苦也都将在明天见分晓。在这样的关头,尉文渊是不可能离开工作现场的。他在浦江饭店的客房里迷糊了两、三个小时,熬到天明。18年后,2008年7月4日,早已离开自己一手创办的上海证券交易所的尉文渊坐在记者面前,回忆当年。他笑着说:现在想起来,我们这批人可真够勇敢的。一种偶然一种命运上交所新大楼由尉文渊来筹办上海证券交易所,有一点偶然。尉文渊出身于军人家庭,15岁初中还没毕业就去新疆伊犁当兵,住地窝子,在冰天雪地中经受了艰苦的锻炼。训练之余,他的一项主要工作就是和泥打坯烧石灰筑营房,极劳累的体力活,他戏称为“基建”工作。这项工作培养了他此后在不同的工作岗位上一直保持着的非常明显的性格特点,就是能吃苦。18岁他加入共产党。当兵5年后他复员回上海,在电影院当服务员,他工作积极,脏活累活抢着干,年年被评为先进,不久被选到上海某区委任宣传干部。恢复高考后,他考入上海财经大学。毕业后,他婉拒了母校的挽留,到正在组建中的国家审计署工作,不久当了副处长。32岁时,又被提拔为审计署人教司处长。虽然仕途顺利,但他对机关里坐办公室的生活一直心有不甘,老想做一点竞争性、挑战性更强的工作。他的老师、原上海财大副院长、时任人民银行上海分行行长的龚浩成对他十分赏识,他被调到人行上海分行金融行政管理处当了正处级的副处长。那是在1989年的11月,他还未满35岁。当时的势头和各方面的信息都很明显:以他的能力和条件,在银行系统的升迁之路将是极其顺畅的。1990年初,为了向世界表明中国改革开放不会走回头路的决心,中国政府宣布将建立上海证券交易所。人民银行上海分行成立了筹备小组,由金管处处长牵头。这样,金管处的工作就由刚调来不久的尉文渊负责。在当时的条件下,筹办证券交易所谈何容易,老处长出去筹办了一阵,进展不大。这也难怪,谁也不知道这个交易所该怎么筹办,所以绝不是个轻松的工作。1990年6月,在海外访问的朱镕基市长向全世界宣布,上海证券交易所将于年内开业。这一时间表让国内负责筹备工作的同志措手不及,顿时紧张起来。这时候,尉文渊感觉到老处长有意重回金管处,于是他提出由他去筹办交易所。就这样,国家大局与个人处境微妙地纠缠在了一起,不经意间改变了尉文渊的人生道路。而此后这条道路上的跌宕起伏,完全出乎他此时的预料和想象。龚浩成同意了,但明确表示,你去锻炼锻炼。第一是把交易所建起来,第二是找好接替的人,然后就回银行,另有重用。而他自己的理解则是刚到银行工作,作为新人,应该多做一点艰苦的工作,为将来的发展多打点基础。此时,尉文渊对年内交易所要开业这个任务至底有多难还没什么感觉,因为他根本不知道这个交易所的分量,不知道年底开业对他意味着什么。“让我们试一试!”解放前的上海曾经是远东的金融中心。为了学习和了解什么是证券交易所,筹备组找来几位曾参与旧上海证券市场的老人座谈。但由于在战乱中,中国的民族工业没有很好地发展,旧上海的证券市场也没有很好地运作,且这些老人只是一般的参与者或工作人员,虽然热情很高,却也说不出个所以然来。调研了一圈,尉文渊仍然一头雾水。有一件事让他感觉踏实了一点,就是先要找个交易场所。这是件很具体的事情,尉文渊一下子感觉到把事情做实了,不再那么茫无头绪。证券交易所的房子,应该是什么样的呢?尉文渊在一本书的封面上看到过一张香港联交所交易大厅的照片,于是就一心想找这样一个大厅。他每天坐着公交车到处找大厅的时候,心里仍然不清楚这个大厅该派什么用处,席位的含义到底是什么。他找过汉口路旧上海交易所的旧址,黄浦江和苏州河沿岸的旧仓库,看了北京东路的火车站售票大厅和金陵东路的船票售票大厅,都失望而归。绝望之中,有人说北外滩的浦江饭店有个大厅。已经不抱希望的尉文渊冒着中午的太阳步行来到浦江饭店。这个饭店是一幢已有150年历史的欧式建筑,以前叫理查饭店,虽然已很破旧,但那气势还在。尉文渊眼前一亮:就是这里了!有了场地,该怎么交易呢?尉文渊从很少的一些资料中了解到,国际上发达国家的交易所主要是口头竞价交易。中国人熟悉的《子夜》里描述的就是口头竞价,打手势配合高声喊价。听说像新加坡、台湾等新兴市场正在推行计算机交易。对上海证券交易所交易方式的选择,很多人包括一些领导都赞成口头竞价模式,因为当时就那么几只股票,交易会很冷清,口头竞价能够满足需要,还能造点气氛。但尉文渊觉得,现在高科技发展那么快,难道我们在二十世纪九十年代新建的交易所,还要重复那种古老的方法吗?他向领导提出,让我们试一试电子计算机交易。尉文渊从向人民银行借的500万元筹备金中挤出100万,决定搞计算机交易系统。他并没有完全放弃口头竞价交易方式的准备,还请在美国华尔街工作过的“海归”来帮助设计口头竞价的方式。搞了一段时间,比划来比划去,找不到感觉。因此,尽管上海证券交易所的交易规则中规定的是口头竞价和计算机交易两种方式,其实“宝”全部押在电子交易上。可以讲,这是一种极其大胆的、跨越式的发展,因为我们连最简单、基础的交易方法都没有掌握,一下子就进入电子交易领域,谁也不敢保证此事能够成功。他邀请当时的上海财经大学的助教谢玮,在深圳黎明工业公司的支持与配合下开始了计算机交易系统的开发和建设。难度可想而知,因为当时他们连交易所的交易规则是怎么样的都搞不太清楚,要在这个基础上编写电脑软件和程序,确实是一个极其困难的任务。到11月份,交易所的筹备大体定型,尉文渊才终于有机会第一次到香港证券市场考察。尉文渊出去的头两天,他对香港联交所的交易体系看不太懂,心想,糟了,自己搞的那套东西不太一样,心情有点慌张。几天后,他突然恍然大悟:原来自己的电脑交易的设想已经走在了联交所交易系统的前面!上交所从开业的第一笔交易开始就跨入了电子交易时代,这对中国证券市场的发展产生了深远的影响。可以这样讲,没有电子交易的技术基础,中国证券市场不可能以这样快的速度扩张,也无法支持现在遍及全国城乡、数千万投资人参与、每天几千亿的成交规模。在电子交易的基础上,尉文渊也顺便解决了股票无纸化交易的问题,在当时,这又是一项具有世界领先意义的创举,推动和支撑了此后证券市场的快速发展。敲响开业锣声交易大厅的装修布置、交易规则的制定、会员和席位的明确、交易员的培训、交易清算的程序、上市公司的准备等等,都在同步进行。具体到交易大厅的色调、交易柜台的位置、显示屏的安装等,尉文渊都是事必躬亲,千头万绪,忙乱不堪。他说,那时候他白天在外面奔忙,晚上回到筹备组办公室与吴雅伦等筹备组的人员讨论交易所章程、交易规则、上市规则等文件。按照原定的日程,交易所应该在12月14日左右开业。12月3日,朱镕基来视察,交易大厅门外基建工地一片狼藉。下了车,朱镕基脸色铁青。但当他走进大厅时,脸色舒缓了下来,他看到大厅里已经布置就绪。他问尉文渊有什么困难需要解决的。尉文渊说装饰包厢的圆拱形玻璃配不到。朱镕基立刻说:你找耀华皮尔金顿,就说是我朱镕基说的,叫他们马上定做。后来朱镕基又对他说:你敢不敢大胆管理?尉文渊说,敢!朱镕基视察过后,地方部门对交易所筹建工作的配合力度更大。开业前一天晚上,区里的市政、绿化、环卫等部门的施工队伍齐集现场,统一指挥,分批鱼贯进场施工。一夜之间,浦江饭店门外的马路和环境焕然一新,就像变戏法一样。由于要等香港行政司邓莲如女士率领的代表团参加开业仪式,上海证券交易所的开业推迟到12月19日。19日一早,尉文渊起床后发现,脚肿得根本穿不上鞋,只好向人借了一只大号鞋。他穿着一只大一只小的皮鞋,由人背着来到现场,一瘸一拐地在现场做最后的布置,然后倚着墙迎接贵宾。按照原定程序,上午11点正式开始交易,由交通银行董事长、也是交易所的理事长李祥瑞授权尉文渊鸣锣开市。11点整,兴奋的来宾们还在议论着参观着,未能全部进入仪式现场,而显示屏已经开始显示交易数据。情急之下,尉文渊敲响了上海证券交易所的第一声开市锣声。放下锣锤,他艰难地走进电脑房,看到谢玮他们兴奋地抱在一起跳啊跳。交易成功了!午宴上尉文渊没吃几口饭。送走来宾后,他就一头倒在了床上。此时他高烧已达40度左右,当晚被送进医院。他在医院呆了一个月,才被允许出院。有人问他开市第一天的感觉。他说:没有感觉。第一天是怎么交易、怎么收市的我都不知道。在交易所成立后的三年中,尉文渊进行了多项尝试和改革。比如,市场扩容。到1992年底,上市公司数量从最初的“老八股”扩大到近60家。比如,扩大交易席位。交易所的会员已经从16家扩大到100多家,交易席位由最初的50个扩大到上千个,到93年更是达到了6000个。另外,他还推出一项极其大胆而有远见的金融工具创新:国债期货。国债期货以及国债回购交易工具的推出,大大活跃了国债市场,提高了金边债券的声誉,极大地促进了当时让政府揪心的国债发行难问题的解决,也是资本市场深化发展的一次勇敢探索。但也正是三年后的“3·27”国债期货事件,让尉文渊因负“监管责任”而离开了他一手创建起来的交易所。尉文渊目前是新盟集团董事长。集团从广告业做起,已拥有庞大的资产和投资,创业投资特别是风电项目的投资是最让人瞩目的一块。“在中国当时的政治社会环境下搞出一个证券交易所发展资本市场,绝对是一项重大的制度突破,这个政治智慧和决策应该得中国经济改革大奖。”这样说的时候,历经了几多风雨的尉文渊豪情不减当年。记者手记:那是一个英雄的时代几次采访尉文渊,听他回顾中国证券市场早期,特别是上海证券交易所创立前后那些充满激情的日子,都让人心情激动。没有既成的方案,没有专业的经验,甚至从来没有见过股票和股票交易,中国证券市场的开创者们凭着一股子勇气和创造精神,凭着对改革开放和国家进步的历史使命感,摸索着、尝试着。更艰难的是,除了技术方面的不足,他们还要顶着“姓社姓资”争论的意识形态压力,最后硬是凭空建起了一个证券市场,为后来这十几年乃至未来中国资本市场和金融改革的长远发展打下了最初的基础。中国证券市场的创立,得力于一大批有魄力、有勇气、忧国忧民而又敢于担当的前驱者,得力于他们冒险犯难、冲破阻碍的闯劲。记者采访过的多位中国证券市场早期的策划者和实践者,都不约而同地指出:中国“改革开放的总设计师”邓小平高瞻远瞩的政治智慧和巨大的影响力,是他们最大的精神动力和勇气来源。在极“左”思潮仍然让人心有余悸、姓社姓资的争论仍然挥之不去的社会环境下,邓小平“摸着石头过河”的改革策略,特别是提出“改革开放胆子要大一些”、“大胆地试,大胆地闯”的南巡讲话,打破了传统计划经济体制和意识形态的紧箍咒,给了他们巨大的鼓舞。这一点后来人恐怕已难以体会。尉文渊他们在创办证券交易所时,缺乏最基本的资料和蓝图,也谈不上出国考察,也就是说,有时候想摸一块石头都摸不到。证券市场每项基本要素的创立,比如第一家股份公司的成立,第一只股票的发行,第一个交易柜台和营业部的成立等等,开创者们面临的也是同样的处境。他们真正是筚路蓝缕、开启山林的英雄。也不能忘记最早的那些投资者或投机者,甚至是所谓“黑市”交易者,没有他们的参与,市场将不可能形成,交易所也将无从开业。他们是勇敢的“吃螃蟹者”,他们也是英雄。还有早期的那些中途落马者,在市场的规矩还没有真正形成并合理化的时期,那些“违规”者以自己身败名裂的惨剧而成为铺路石,他们在某种意义上是为历史的进步付出了代价。那是一个英雄的时代,英雄们的故事已经成为传奇。但正如人类历史的进程一样,我们不能永远停留在英雄时代,英雄时代必将成为历史,社会将进入更常态的稳定、理性发展的时代。现在的证券市场已经经历了巨大的、根本性的进步,无论从数量上还是质量上都与早期的市场迥然有别。但也正如在二十一世纪的现在,人们仍然对人类早期的传奇故事满怀好奇甚至神往一样,我们也常常忍不住回想起证券市场早期那些充满创造激情的日子,那个英雄时代留下的脚印。那脚印上有汗有血。小资料1990年4月18日国务院总理李鹏宣布加快开发、开放浦东地区的十大政策,决定建立上海证券交易所是其中之一。1990年11月26日上海证券交易所举行成立大会暨第一次会员大会,审议通过上海证券交易所章程,李祥瑞为第一任理事长,尉文渊为第一任总经理。1990年11月27日上海市人民政府颁布《上海市证券交易所管理办法》。1990年12月19日上海证券交易所正式开业。1990年12月31日截至1990年底,沪市共有8家上市公司,俗称“老八股”。上证综指当年最低95.79点,最高127.61点。(周松林整理)编辑:叶松

bian zhe an: gai ge kai fang 40 nian, feng qi yun yong, ji qing dang yang. zi ben shi chang cong wu dao you, cong xiao dao da, cong meng ya dao zhu bu cheng shu. 40 nian de feng yu zhong, you wu shu ci de ji dong xi yue jing xian he jin bu. ben hao tui chu 40 nian, wo men qin li zhuan lan, xuan qu zhong guo zheng quan bao guo wang xiang guan bao dao, yi xiang du zhe, zhei xie bao dao zhi jin du lai yu wen you zai. rang wo men chuan yue shi guang, chong wen li shi, fang yan wei lai, zou xiang hui huang! 1990 nian 12 yue 19 ri shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo kai ye wei wen yuan: nei xie ji qing ran shao de ri zi shang jiao suo kai ye suo zai de pu jiang fan dian lu jun she" wo men chuang ban di zhen shi ge jiao yi suo ma?" 1990 nian 12 yue 18 ri wan shang, shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo kai ye qian xi. jiao yi suo chou bei zu fu ze ren di yi ren shang jiao suo zong jing li wei wen yuan zuo zai gang gang zhuang xiu wan de jiao yi da ting, xin li yi pian mang ran. zuo wei zhong guo gai ge kai fang xiang geng zong shen tui jin de biao zhi, shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo de kai ye jiang shi yi jian li shi xing de da shi jian, quan shi jie dou zai guan zhu. dan shi ci ke, wei wen yuan que tan te bu an. geng zao gao de shi, dui ci yi jing bu neng zai zuo shen me le, zhi you deng dai. jin gan man gan, jiao yi xi tong zong suan zhun bei jiu xu le. dan ji mei you jing guo ce shi, geng mei you zuo guo shi yun xing, shui ye bu zhi dao zai shi ji jiao yi guo cheng zhong hui chu xian shen me qing kuang. zai que ding xuan ze le dian nao jiao yi de da yuan ze he ji shu fang an hou, wei wen yuan tian tian xun wen xi tong jian she de jin zhan qing kuang, dan zhi dao kuai kai ye le, da jia xin li reng ran mei you di. hai you ge da wen ti shi qing suan, qing suan xi tong gen ben lai bu ji gao, cheng li le ge qing suan bu, dao shi hou neng zheng chang yun ying ma? zhi you tian xiao de. zai shang ge shi ji 90 nian dai chu de zhong guo, kong pa mei you ren neng shuo qing chu zheng quan jiao yi suo shi zen me hui shi. wei wen yuan he ta de chou bei ban zi cong mei jian guo yi jia zhen zheng di zheng quan jiao yi suo. zai xin xi ji qi kui fa de qing kuang xia, zai bu dao ban nian de shi jian li, ying shi mo suo zhe ba yi ge zheng quan jiao yi suo jian cheng le. ke shi, sui zhe kai ye de lin jin, gang kai shi shi de na zhong meng dong wu zhi de zi xin jian jian bei xiao shi, yi ge kun huo hui zhi bu qu: wo gao de zhe ge dong xi, zhen de shi yi ge zheng quan jiao yi suo ma? mei you ren neng gei ta da an. mu yi cheng zhou, ji shi you wen ti, shi shi shang, ye yi mei you xiu zheng he tiao zheng de ke neng, yin wei ming tian jiu yao kai ye le. jiu zai ji tian qian, yi ci chou bei xiao zu de peng tou kuai shang, shuo zhe shuo zhe, wei wen yuan tu ran liu lei le. chu le ji du de pi bei wai, geng yao ming de shi na zhong mang mang ran mei you fang xiang de gan jue. shi qing gao za le shui ye fu bu qi ze ren, ke shi ni you wu neng wei li! wei wen yuan shuo: dang shi ta tu ran gan dao zi ji jiu xiang lang tao zhong de yi ye xiao zhou shi de na yang wu zhu, bu zhi hui bei shuai xiang he fang. shen bu you ji, zhe zhong mang ran de jiao lv tu ran jian ba ta yan mo le. zhe zhong gan jue hen kuai jiu guo qu le, wei wen yuan shi ge bu hui xiang ming yun qu fu de ren. na yi tian bu jin mang luan, ma fan shi hai duo. zai bu zhi kai ye dian li de hui chang shi, pi bei de wei wen yuan zai ban zhuo zi shi ya dao le jiao, dang shi jiu zhong le qi lai. wan shang, shang kou fa yan, ta fa qi gao shao lai, hun shen leng re jiao zuo. dan ming tian jiu yao kai ye, quan shi jie de mu guang dou jiang xiang zhe li ju jiao, er suo you de nu li xin ku ye dou jiang zai ming tian jian fen xiao. zai zhe yang de guan tou, wei wen yuan shi bu ke neng li kai gong zuo xian chang de. ta zai pu jiang fan dian de ke fang li mi hu le liang san ge xiao shi, ao dao tian ming. 18 nian hou, 2008 nian 7 yue 4 ri, zao yi li kai zi ji yi shou chuang ban de shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo de wei wen yuan zuo zai ji zhe mian qian, hui yi dang nian. ta xiao zhe shuo: xian zai xiang qi lai, wo men zhe pi ren ke zhen gou yong gan de. yi zhong ou ran yi zhong ming yun shang jiao suo xin da lou you wei wen yuan lai chou ban shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo, you yi dian ou ran. wei wen yuan chu shen yu jun ren jia ting, 15 sui chu zhong hai mei bi ye jiu qu xin jiang yi li dang bing, zhu di wo zi, zai bing tian xue di zhong jing shou le jian ku de duan lian. xun lian zhi yu, ta de yi xiang zhu yao gong zuo jiu shi he ni da pi shao shi hui zhu ying fang, ji lao lei de ti li huo, ta xi cheng wei" ji jian" gong zuo. zhe xiang gong zuo pei yang le ta ci hou zai bu tong de gong zuo gang wei shang yi zhi bao chi zhe de fei chang ming xian de xing ge te dian, jiu shi neng chi ku. 18 sui ta jia ru gong chan dang. dang bing 5 nian hou ta fu yuan hui shang hai, zai dian ying yuan dang fu wu yuan, ta gong zuo ji ji, zang huo lei huo qiang zhe gan, nian nian bei ping wei xian jin, bu jiu bei xuan dao shang hai mou qu wei ren xuan chuan gan bu. hui fu gao kao hou, ta kao ru shang hai cai jing da xue. bi ye hou, ta wan ju le mu xiao de wan liu, dao zheng zai zu jian zhong de guo jia shen ji shu gong zuo, bu jiu dang le fu chu zhang. 32 sui shi, you bei ti ba wei shen ji shu ren jiao si chu zhang. sui ran shi tu shun li, dan ta dui ji guan li zuo ban gong shi de sheng huo yi zhi xin you bu gan, lao xiang zuo yi dian jing zheng xing tiao zhan xing geng qiang de gong zuo. ta de lao shi yuan shang hai cai da fu yuan chang shi ren ren min yin hang shang hai fen hang hang zhang de gong hao cheng dui ta shi fen shang shi, ta bei diao dao ren xing shang hai fen hang jin rong xing zheng guan li chu dang le zheng chu ji de fu chu zhang. na shi zai 1989 nian de 11 yue, ta hai wei man 35 sui. dang shi de shi tou he ge fang mian di xin xi dou hen ming xian: yi ta de neng li he tiao jian, zai yin hang xi tong de sheng qian zhi lu jiang shi ji qi shun chang de. 1990 nian chu, wei le xiang shi jie biao ming zhong guo gai ge kai fang bu hui zou hui tou lu de jue xin, zhong guo zheng fu xuan bu jiang jian li shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo. ren min yin hang shang hai fen hang cheng li le chou bei xiao zu, you jin guan chu chu zhang qian tou. zhe yang, jin guan chu de gong zuo jiu you gang diao lai bu jiu de wei wen yuan fu ze. zai dang shi de tiao jian xia, chou ban zheng quan jiao yi suo tan he rong yi, lao chu zhang chu qu chou ban le yi zhen, jin zhan bu da. zhe ye nan guai, shui ye bu zhi dao zhe ge jiao yi suo gai zen me chou ban, suo yi jue bu shi ge qing song de gong zuo. 1990 nian 6 yue, zai hai wai fang wen de zhu rong ji shi zhang xiang quan shi jie xuan bu, shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo jiang yu nian nei kai ye. zhe yi shi jian biao rang guo nei fu ze chou bei gong zuo de tong zhi cuo shou bu ji, dun shi jin zhang qi lai. zhe shi hou, wei wen yuan gan jue dao lao chu zhang you yi chong hui jin guan chu, yu shi ta ti chu you ta qu chou ban jiao yi suo. jiu zhe yang, guo jia da ju yu ge ren chu jing wei miao di jiu chan zai le yi qi, bu jing yi jian gai bian le wei wen yuan de ren sheng dao lu. er ci hou zhe tiao dao lu shang de die dang qi fu, wan quan chu hu ta ci shi de yu liao he xiang xiang. gong hao cheng tong yi le, dan ming que biao shi, ni qu duan lian duan lian. di yi shi ba jiao yi suo jian qi lai, di er shi zhao hao jie ti de ren, ran hou jiu hui yin hang, ling you zhong yong. er ta zi ji de li jie ze shi gang dao yin hang gong zuo, zuo wei xin ren, ying gai duo zuo yi dian jian ku de gong zuo, wei jiang lai de fa zhan duo da dian ji chu. ci shi, wei wen yuan dui nian nei jiao yi suo yao kai ye zhe ge ren wu zhi di you duo nan hai mei shen me gan jue, yin wei ta gen ben bu zhi dao zhe ge jiao yi suo de fen liang, bu zhi dao nian di kai ye dui ta yi wei zhe shen me." rang wo men shi yi shi!" jie fang qian de shang hai ceng jing shi yuan dong de jin rong zhong xin. wei le xue xi he liao jie shen me shi zheng quan jiao yi suo, chou bei zu zhao lai ji wei zeng shen yu jiu shang hai zheng quan shi chang de lao ren zuo tan. dan you yu zai zhan luan zhong, zhong guo de min zu gong ye mei you hen hao di fa zhan, jiu shang hai di zheng quan shi chang ye mei you hen hao di yun zuo, qie zhei xie lao ren zhi shi yi ban de can yu zhe huo gong zuo ren yuan, sui ran re qing hen gao, que ye shuo bu chu ge suo yi ran lai. diao yan le yi quan, wei wen yuan reng ran yi tou wu shui. you yi jian shi rang ta gan jue ta shi le yi dian, jiu shi xian yao zhao ge jiao yi chang suo. zhe shi jian hen ju ti de shi qing, wei wen yuan yi xia zi gan jue dao ba shi qing zuo shi le, bu zai na me mang wu tou xu. zheng quan jiao yi suo de fang zi, ying gai shi shen me yang de ne? wei wen yuan zai yi ben shu de feng mian shang kan dao guo yi zhang xiang gang lian jiao suo jiao yi da ting de zhao pian, yu shi jiu yi xin xiang zhao zhe yang yi ge da ting. ta mei tian zuo zhe gong jiao che dao chu zhao da ting de shi hou, xin li reng ran bu qing chu zhe ge da ting gai pai shen me yong chu, xi wei de han yi dao di shi shen me. ta zhao guo han kou lu jiu shang hai jiao yi suo de jiu zhi, huang pu jiang he su zhou he yan an de jiu cang ku, kan le bei jing dong lu de huo che zhan shou piao da ting he jin ling dong lu de chuan piao shou piao da ting, dou shi wang er gui. jue wang zhi zhong, you ren shuo bei wai tan de pu jiang fan dian you ge da ting. yi jing bu bao xi wang de wei wen yuan mao zhe zhong wu de tai yang bu xing lai dao pu jiang fan dian. zhe ge fan dian shi yi chuang yi you 150 nian li shi de ou shi jian zhu, yi qian jiao li cha fan dian, sui ran yi hen po jiu, dan na qi shi hai zai. wei wen yuan yan qian yi liang: jiu shi zhe li le! you le chang di, gai zen me jiao yi ne? wei wen yuan cong hen shao de yi xie zi liao zhong liao jie dao, guo ji shang fa da guo jia de jiao yi suo zhu yao shi kou tou jing jia jiao yi. zhong guo ren shu xi de zi ye li miao shu de jiu shi kou tou jing jia, da shou shi pei he gao sheng han jia. ting shuo xiang xin jia po tai wan deng xin xing shi chang zheng zai tui xing ji suan ji jiao yi. dui shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo jiao yi fang shi de xuan ze, hen duo ren bao kuo yi xie ling dao dou zan cheng kou tou jing jia mo shi, yin wei dang shi jiu na me ji zhi gu piao, jiao yi hui hen leng qing, kou tou jing jia neng gou man zu xu yao, hai neng zao dian qi fen. dan wei wen yuan jue de, xian zai gao ke ji fa zhan na me kuai, nan dao wo men zai er shi shi ji jiu shi nian dai xin jian de jiao yi suo, hai yao chong fu na zhong gu lao de fang fa ma? ta xiang ling dao ti chu, rang wo men shi yi shi dian zi ji suan ji jiao yi. wei wen yuan cong xiang ren min yin hang jie de 500 wan yuan chou bei jin zhong ji chu 100 wan, jue ding gao ji suan ji jiao yi xi tong. ta bing mei you wan quan fang qi kou tou jing jia jiao yi fang shi de zhun bei, hai qing zai mei guo hua er jie gong zuo guo de" hai gui" lai bang zhu she ji kou tou jing jia de fang shi. gao le yi duan shi jian, bi hua lai bi hua qu, zhao bu dao gan jue. yin ci, jin guan shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo de jiao yi gui ze zhong gui ding de shi kou tou jing jia he ji suan ji jiao yi liang zhong fang shi, qi shi" bao" quan bu ya zai dian zi jiao yi shang. ke yi jiang, zhe shi yi zhong ji qi da dan de kua yue shi de fa zhan, yin wei wo men lian zui jian dan ji chu de jiao yi fang fa dou mei you zhang wo, yi xia zi jiu jin ru dian zi jiao yi ling yu, shui ye bu gan bao zheng ci shi neng gou cheng gong. ta yao qing dang shi de shang hai cai jing da xue de zhu jiao xie wei, zai shen zhen li ming gong ye gong si de zhi chi yu pei he xia kai shi le ji suan ji jiao yi xi tong de kai fa he jian she. nan du ke xiang er zhi, yin wei dang shi ta men lian jiao yi suo de jiao yi gui ze shi zen me yang de dou gao bu tai qing chu, yao zai zhe ge ji chu shang bian xie dian nao ruan jian he cheng xu, que shi shi yi ge ji qi kun nan de ren wu. dao 11 yue fen, jiao yi suo de chou bei da ti ding xing, wei wen yuan cai zhong yu you ji hui di yi ci dao xiang gang zheng quan shi chang kao cha. wei wen yuan chu qu de tou liang tian, ta dui xiang gang lian jiao suo de jiao yi ti xi kan bu tai dong, xin xiang, zao le, zi ji gao de na tao dong xi bu tai yi yang, xin qing you dian huang zhang. ji tian hou, ta tu ran huang ran da wu: yuan lai zi ji de dian nao jiao yi de she xiang yi jing zou zai le lian jiao suo jiao yi xi tong de qian mian! shang jiao suo cong kai ye de di yi bi jiao yi kai shi jiu kua ru le dian zi jiao yi shi dai, zhe dui zhong guo zheng quan shi chang de fa zhan chan sheng le shen yuan de ying xiang. ke yi zhe yang jiang, mei you dian zi jiao yi de ji shu ji chu, zhong guo zheng quan shi chang bu ke neng yi zhe yang kuai de su du kuo zhang, ye wu fa zhi chi xian zai bian ji quan guo cheng xiang shu qian wan tou zi ren shen yu mei tian ji qian yi de cheng jiao gui mo. zai dian zi jiao yi de ji chu shang, wei wen yuan ye shun bian jie jue le gu piao wu zhi hua jiao yi de wen ti, zai dang shi, zhe you shi yi xiang ju you shi jie ling xian yi yi de chuang ju, tui dong he zhi cheng le ci hou zheng quan shi chang de kuai su fa zhan. qiao xiang kai ye luo sheng jiao yi da ting de zhuang xiu bu zhi jiao yi gui ze de zhi ding hui yuan he xi wei de ming que jiao yi yuan de pei xun jiao yi qing suan de cheng xu shang shi gong si de zhun bei deng deng, dou zai tong bu jin xing. ju ti dao jiao yi da ting de se diao jiao yi gui tai de wei zhi xian shi ping de an zhuang deng, wei wen yuan dou shi shi bi gong qin, qian tou wan xu, mang luan bu kan. ta shuo, na shi hou ta bai tian zai wai mian ben mang, wan shang hui dao chou bei zu ban gong shi yu wu ya lun deng chou bei zu de ren yuan tao lun jiao yi suo zhang cheng jiao yi gui ze shang shi gui ze deng wen jian. an zhao yuan ding de ri cheng, jiao yi suo ying gai zai 12 yue 14 ri zuo you kai ye. 12 yue 3 ri, zhu rong ji lai shi cha, jiao yi da ting men wai ji jian gong di yi pian lang ji. xia le che, zhu rong ji lian se tie qing. dan dang ta zou jin da ting shi, lian se shu huan le xia lai, ta kan dao da ting li yi jing bu zhi jiu xu. ta wen wei wen yuan you shen me kun nan xu yao jie jue de. wei wen yuan shuo zhuang shi bao xiang de yuan gong xing bo li pei bu dao. zhu rong ji li ke shuo: ni zhao yao hua pi er jin dun, jiu shuo shi wo zhu rong ji shuo de, jiao ta men ma shang ding zuo. hou lai zhu rong ji you dui ta shuo: ni gan bu gan da dan guan li? wei wen yuan shuo, gan! zhu rong ji shi cha guo hou, di fang bu men dui jiao yi suo chou jian gong zuo de pei he li du geng da. kai ye qian yi tian wan shang, qu li de shi zheng lv hua huan wei deng bu men de shi gong dui wu qi ji xian chang, tong yi zhi hui, fen pi yu guan jin chang shi gong. yi ye zhi jian, pu jiang fan dian men wai de ma lu he huan jing huan ran yi xin, jiu xiang bian xi fa yi yang. you yu yao deng xiang gang xing zheng si deng lian ru nv shi shuai ling de dai biao tuan can jia kai ye yi shi, shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo de kai ye tui chi dao 12 yue 19 ri. 19 ri yi zao, wei wen yuan qi chuang hou fa xian, jiao zhong de gen ben chuan bu shang xie, zhi hao xiang ren jie le yi zhi da hao xie. ta chuan zhe yi zhi da yi zhi xiao de pi xie, you ren bei zhe lai dao xian chang, yi que yi guai di zai xian chang zuo zui hou de bu zhi, ran hou yi zhe qiang ying jie gui bin. an zhao yuan ding cheng xu, shang wu 11 dian zheng shi kai shi jiao yi, you jiao tong yin hang dong shi zhang ye shi jiao yi suo de li shi zhang li xiang rui shou quan wei wen yuan ming luo kai shi. 11 dian zheng, xing fen de lai bin men hai zai yi lun zhe can guan zhe, wei neng quan bu jin ru yi shi xian chang, er xian shi ping yi jing kai shi xian shi jiao yi shu ju. qing ji zhi xia, wei wen yuan qiao xiang le shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo de di yi sheng kai shi luo sheng. fang xia luo chui, ta jian nan di zou jin dian nao fang, kan dao xie wei ta men xing fen di bao zai yi qi tiao a tiao. jiao yi cheng gong le! wu yan shang wei wen yuan mei chi ji kou fan. song zou lai bin hou, ta jiu yi tou dao zai le chuang shang. ci shi ta gao shao yi da 40 du zuo you, dang wan bei song jin yi yuan. ta zai yi yuan dai le yi ge yue, cai bei yun xu chu yuan. you ren wen ta kai shi di yi tian de gan jue. ta shuo: mei you gan jue. di yi tian shi zen me jiao yi zen me shou shi de wo dou bu zhi dao. zai jiao yi suo cheng li hou de san nian zhong, wei wen yuan jin xing le duo xiang chang shi he gai ge. bi ru, shi chang kuo rong. dao 1992 nian di, shang shi gong si shu liang cong zui chu de" lao ba gu" kuo da dao jin 60 jia. bi ru, kuo da jiao yi xi wei. jiao yi suo de hui yuan yi jing cong 16 jia kuo da dao 100 duo jia, jiao yi xi wei you zui chu de 50 ge kuo da dao shang qian ge, dao 93 nian geng shi da dao le 6000 ge. ling wai, ta hai tui chu yi xiang ji qi da dan er you yuan jian de jin rong gong ju chuang xin: guo zhai qi huo. guo zhai qi huo yi ji guo zhai hui gou jiao yi gong ju de tui chu, da da huo yue le guo zhai shi chang, ti gao le jin bian zhai quan de sheng yu, ji da di cu jin liao dang shi rang zheng fu jiu xin de guo zhai fa xing nan wen ti de jie jue, ye shi zi ben shi chang shen hua fa zhan de yi ci yong gan tan suo. dan ye zheng shi san nian hou de" 3 27" guo zhai qi huo shi jian, rang wei wen yuan yin fu" jian guan ze ren" er li kai le ta yi shou chuang jian qi lai de jiao yi suo. wei wen yuan mu qian shi xin meng ji tuan dong shi zhang. ji tuan cong guang gao ye zuo qi, yi yong you pang da de zi chan he tou zi, chuang ye tou zi te bie shi feng dian xiang mu di tou zi shi zui rang ren zhu mu di yi kuai." zai zhong guo dang shi de zheng zhi she hui huan jing xia gao chu yi ge zheng quan jiao yi suo fa zhan zi ben shi chang, jue dui shi yi xiang zhong da de zhi du tu po, zhe ge zheng zhi zhi hui he jue ce ying gai de zhong guo jing ji gai ge da jiang." zhe yang shuo de shi hou, li jing le ji duo feng yu de wei wen yuan hao qing bu jian dang nian. ji zhe shou ji: na shi yi ge ying xiong de shi dai ji ci cai fang wei wen yuan, ting ta hui gu zhong guo zheng quan shi chang zao qi, te bie shi shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo chuang li qian hou nei xie chong man ji qing de ri zi, dou rang ren xin qing ji dong. mei you ji cheng de fang an, mei you zhuan ye de jing yan, shen zhi cong lai mei you jian guo gu piao he gu piao jiao yi, zhong guo zheng quan shi chang de kai chuang zhe men ping zhe yi gu zi yong qi he chuang zao jing shen, ping zhe dui gai ge kai fang he guo jia jin bu de li shi shi ming gan, mo suo zhe chang shi zhe. geng jian nan de shi, chu le ji shu fang mian di bu zu, ta men hai yao ding zhe" xing she xing zi" zheng lun de yi shi xing tai ya li, zui hou ying shi ping kong jian qi le yi ge zheng quan shi chang, wei hou lai zhe shi ji nian nai zhi wei lai zhong guo zi ben shi chang he jin rong gai ge de chang yuan fa zhan da xia le zui chu de ji chu. zhong guo zheng quan shi chang de chuang li, de li yu yi da pi you po li you yong qi you guo you min er you gan yu dan dang de qian qu zhe, de li yu ta men mao xian fan nan chong po zu ai de chuang jin. ji zhe cai fang guo de duo wei zhong guo zheng quan shi chang zao qi de ce hua zhe he shi jian zhe, dou bu yue er tong di zhi chu: zhong guo" gai ge kai fang de zong she ji shi" deng xiao ping gao zhan yuan zhu de zheng zhi zhi hui he ju da de ying xiang li, shi ta men zui da de jing shen dong li he yong qi lai yuan. zai ji" zuo" si chao reng ran rang ren xin you yu ji xing she xing zi de zheng lun reng ran hui zhi bu qu de she hui huan jing xia, deng xiao ping" mo zhe shi tou guo he" de gai ge ce lue, te bie shi ti chu" gai ge kai fang dan zi yao da yi xie"" da dan di shi, da dan di chuang" de nan xun jiang hua, da po le chuan tong ji hua jing ji ti zhi he yi shi xing tai de jin gu zhou, gei le ta men ju da de gu wu. zhe yi dian hou lai ren kong pa yi nan yi ti hui. wei wen yuan ta men zai chuang ban zheng quan jiao yi suo shi, que fa zui ji ben de zi liao he lan tu, ye tan bu shang chu guo kao cha, ye jiu shi shuo, you shi hou xiang mo yi kuai shi tou dou mo bu dao. zheng quan shi chang mei xiang ji ben yao su de chuang li, bi ru di yi jia gu fen gong si de cheng li, di yi zhi gu piao de fa xing, di yi ge jiao yi gui tai he ying ye bu de cheng li deng deng, kai chuang zhe men mian lin de ye shi tong yang de chu jing. ta men zhen zheng shi bi lu lan lv kai qi shan lin de ying xiong. ye bu neng wang ji zui zao de nei xie tou zi zhe huo tou ji zhe, shen zhi shi suo wei" hei shi" jiao yi zhe, mei you ta men de can yu, shi chang jiang bu ke neng xing cheng, jiao yi suo ye jiang wu cong kai ye. ta men shi yong gan de" chi pang xie zhe", ta men ye shi ying xiong. hai you zao qi de nei xie zhong tu luo ma zhe, zai shi chang de gui ju hai mei you zhen zheng xing cheng bing he li hua de shi qi, nei xie" wei gui" zhe yi zi ji shen bai ming lie de can ju er cheng wei pu lu shi, ta men zai mou zhong yi yi shang shi wei li shi de jin bu fu chu le dai jia. na shi yi ge ying xiong de shi dai, ying xiong men de gu shi yi jing cheng wei chuan qi. dan zheng ru ren lei li shi de jin cheng yi yang, wo men bu neng yong yuan ting liu zai ying xiong shi dai, ying xiong shi dai bi jiang cheng wei li shi, she hui jiang jin ru geng chang tai de wen ding li xing fa zhan de shi dai. xian zai di zheng quan shi chang yi jing jing li le ju da de gen ben xing de jin bu, wu lun cong shu liang shang hai shi zhi liang shang dou yu zao qi de shi chang jiong ran you bie. dan ye zheng ru zai er shi yi shi ji de xian zai, ren men reng ran dui ren lei zao qi de chuan qi gu shi man huai hao qi shen zhi shen wang yi yang, wo men ye chang chang ren bu zhu hui xiang qi zheng quan shi chang zao qi nei xie chong man chuang zao ji qing de ri zi, na ge ying xiong shi dai liu xia de jiao yin. na jiao yin shang you han you xue. xiao zi liao 1990 nian 4 yue 18 ri guo wu yuan zong li li peng xuan bu jia kuai kai fa kai fang pu dong di qu de shi da zheng ce, jue ding jian li shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo shi qi zhong zhi yi. 1990 nian 11 yue 26 ri shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo ju xing cheng li da hui ji di yi ci hui yuan da hui, shen yi tong guo shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo zhang cheng, li xiang rui wei di yi ren li shi zhang, wei wen yuan wei di yi ren zong jing li. 1990 nian 11 yue 27 ri shang hai shi ren min zheng fu ban bu shang hai shi zheng quan jiao yi suo guan li ban fa. 1990 nian 12 yue 19 ri shang hai zheng quan jiao yi suo zheng shi kai ye. 1990 nian 12 yue 31 ri jie zhi 1990 nian di, hu shi gong you 8 jia shang shi gong si, su cheng" lao ba gu". shang zheng zong zhi dang nian zui di 95. 79 dian, zui gao 127. 61 dian. zhou song lin zheng li bian ji: ye song

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